France has accepted a digital companies tax regardless of threats of retaliation by the US, which argues that it unfairly targets American tech giants.
The three% tax shall be levied on gross sales generated in France by multinational corporations like Google and Fb.
The French authorities has argued that such corporations headquartered exterior the nation pay little or no tax.
The US administration has ordered an inquiry into the transfer – which may lead to retaliatory tariffs.
The brand new tax was accepted by the French senate on Thursday, every week after it was handed by the decrease home, the Nationwide Meeting.
Any digital firm with income of greater than €750m ($850m; £670m) – of which at the very least €25m is generated in France – could be topic to the levy.
It is going to be retroactively utilized from early 2019, and is anticipated to boost about €400m this yr.
Why goal tech giants?
At current, they can pay little or no company tax in nations the place they don’t have a big bodily presence. They declare most of their income the place they’re headquartered.
The European Fee estimates that on common conventional companies face a 23% tax fee on their income throughout the EU, whereas web corporations usually pay eight% or 9%.
France has lengthy argued that taxes must be primarily based on digital, not simply bodily presence. It introduced its personal tax on huge know-how corporations final yr after EU-wide efforts stalled.
An EU levy would require consensus amongst members, however Eire, the Czech Republic, Sweden and Finland raised objections.
France’s new three% tax shall be primarily based on gross sales made within the nation, fairly than on income.
About 30 – principally American teams – pays it. Chinese language, German, Spanish and British corporations are additionally affected, in addition to the French internet marketing agency Criteo.
The French authorities says the tax will finish if an identical measure is agreed internationally.
The large tech corporations have argued they’re complying with nationwide and worldwide tax legal guidelines.
What has the US stated?
The Trump administration denounced the transfer a day earlier than the vote.
On Wednesday commerce consultant Robert Lighthizer stated an investigation would “decide whether or not it’s discriminatory or unreasonable and burdens or restricts United States commerce”.
The US inquiry may pave the best way for punitive tariffs, which Mr Trump has imposed on a number of events since taking workplace.
Earlier investigations launched by Washington have lined European Union and Chinese language commerce practices.
Defending the brand new tax on Thursday, French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire stated France was “sovereign and determined its personal tax guidelines”.
“I wish to inform our American mates that this must be an incentive for them to speed up much more our work to seek out an settlement on the worldwide taxation of digital companies,” he added.
Evaluation by Dave Lee, BBC North America know-how reporter
This “Part 301” investigation, as it’s identified, has been used earlier than as a manner of finally implementing new tariffs on nations the Trump administration feels is taking the US for a journey.
If France goes to take tons of of thousands and thousands of euros from the pockets of American tech giants, the US argument is perhaps, then why should not the US earn extra money from what the French do within the US? It took the identical view with China and has buried itself in a commerce conflict that has destabilised relations and has the potential to escalate even additional.
The digital tax is a danger for France, for it’s now remoted. There had been discuss of a Europe-wide tech tax, however talks fell down thanks partially to opposition from nations akin to Eire, which has benefitted from with the ability to entice tech corporations to arrange their European base within the nation. Different nations – such because the UK, Spain and Austria – are contemplating related strikes, however France is furthest alongside.
One factor all sides agree on, nonetheless, is that in our fashionable, digital economic system, the overhaul of how corporations are taxed is lengthy overdue.
France shall be hoping for considered one of two outcomes. Both nations observe their lead and implement their very own, impartial legal guidelines, limiting France’s publicity. Or the transfer offers added vitality to requires a multilateral settlement on how digital corporations must be taxed globally, placing an finish to the squirreling-away of huge sums of cash made by web giants.